Dorena Amann, Friederike Gerstenberger, Hugo M. Kehr, Technische Universität München, Germany

“Charisma is, above all, a relationship” – when follower motive is compatible with leadership style

Drawing on the theoretical concepts of transformational leadership and social motives, we experimentally test the hypothesis that follower perceptions of leader charisma are dependent on the compatibility of leader behavior and follower motives. Specifically, we expect that the more the leaders show behaviors encompassing Inspirational Motivation, the more they will be perceived as charismatic by followers high in power motive, as both concepts are related to exerting social influence. Additionally, we expect that the more the leaders show behaviors comprising Individual Consideration, the more they will be perceived as charismatic by followers high in affiliation motive, as both concepts are related to individual care and forming close interpersonal relationships. The experiment is conducted in two phases. In the first phase, participants are assigned to one of two experimental conditions. They first receive a training program, which, dependent on the condition, aims at teaching Inspirational Motivation or Individual Consideration. Afterwards participants have to persuade their own team leaders to apply Management by Objectives tactics, thereby using the specific leadership style learned in the training. Their persuasive speeches are videotaped. In the second phase, another set of participants evaluates the speeches. Before that, their implicit and explicit motives are assessed. The participants indicate to what extent they perceive the speaker as charismatic. In addition to this subjective assessment of charisma, we objectively code the speeches regarding the use of charismatic leadership tactics and acoustic as well as linguistic features. The design is discussed with regard to the possible underlying mechanisms of charisma perception.

Heike Bruch, Universität St. Gallen, Switzerland

Productive organizational energy: a collective level motivational construct and the influence of leadership and TMT behavioral integration

Productive organizational energy describes the extent to which an organization has mobilized its emotional, cognitive, and behavioral potential in pursuit of its goals. In my presentation, I will introduce the construct and show different studies examining antecedents and influences, as well as consequences of productive organizational energy. In particular, I will suggest that leaders can influence productive energy, because they shape employees' emotional experiences, their cognitive interpretations of organizational events, and their productive behaviors, through which energy is mobilized. Our research also investigates top management teams (TMT) and how TMT behavioral integration impacts organizations’ productive energy. Furthermore, our research sheds light on how productive organizational energy influences both individual employee attitudes as well as the performance of organizations.

Bruno Frey, University of Zürich

Happiness - A View from Economics

Based on the recent research on happiness undertaken by psychologists and economists, several countries, among them France and the United Kingdom, have decided to pursue the happiness of the population as their major goal of policy. They thus follow the Kingdom of Bhutan, which has claimed for a considerable time that it endeavours to maximize the happiness of its people.

The presentation deals with two questions:

1. What do we know about the determinants of happiness? Is it true that an increase in income does not raise individual well-being? What are other significant factors? What are open issues?

2. Is it the government’s task to maximize happiness or life satisfaction? Though this goal at first sight looks very attractive, I wish to argue that it should not do so. The idea of a happiness maximizing government corresponds to the notion of a “benevolent dictator” which should no be followed in a democracy.

Marylène Gagné, John Molson School of Business, Canada

Empirical evidence for the application of self-determination theory in management

Gagne and Deci (2005) presented a model applying SDT to the area of organizational psychology and management.  Since then, much empirical research has been conducted. This presentation presents some of this work and provides directions for future research using SDT in management.  This research stresses the importance of satisfying psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness for the promotion of work motivation.  It also shows how common organizational practices, such as job design, leadership, training and compensation systems influence need satisfaction and work motivation.  Finally, this research demonstrates the value of promoting autonomous over controlled work motivation for performance, well-being, retention, knowledge sharing and change management.

Guido Hertel, Markus Thielgen & Stefan Krumm, Westfäl. Universität Münster, Germany

Age Differences in Motivation at Work

In light of an aging workforce, a thorough understanding of age differences in work motivation is needed to provide reliable guidelines for a differentiated human resource management. Based on an integrative framework connecting established motivation theories with life-span approaches, this presentation postulates and empirically substantiates systematic age differences in work-related motives both as main effects and as moderating conditions. First, older workers prioritize work values that are more directed towards current well-being, autonomy, and generativity, whereas younger workers emphasize work values directed towards learning and future development. Second, prevalence and affective consequences of the relative fit between work values and task characteristics (need-supply fit) are significantly different for older as compared to younger workers. Third, prevalence and affective consequences of the congruency between (explicit) work values and implicit motives are significantly different for older as compared to younger workers. In general, older workers (on average) seem to adapt their work values more strongly both to given task characteristics and to their personal dispositions. Indeed, if work values are incongruent with either task characteristics or with implicit motives, older workers report significantly lower job satisfaction than their younger colleagues.

Hugo M. Kehr, Peter Gröpel, Ina Melny, Maika Rawolle, Anja Schiepe & Susanne M. Steiner, Technische Universität München, Germany

The compensatory model of motivation and volition as a frame of reference for research and application in organizational settings

We introduce the compensatory model of work motivation and volition (Kehr, AMR, 2004). The structural components of the model are implicit motives, explicit motives, and perceived abilities; the functional processes are volitional regulation (compensating for inadequate motivation) and problem solving (compensating for inadequate perceived abilities). Predictions derived from the compensatory model challenge and extend existing conceptions of diverse motivational phenomena: flow experience, implicit/explicit motive discrepancies, the depletion of will-power, the undermining of intrinsic motivation, and the motivating power of visions.
Regarding flow, implicit motives, and affective and cognitive preferences are conceptualized as important ingredients of flow, which goes beyond the well-known ability/demand fit. Regarding the consequences of dysfunctional motive constellations such as implicit/explicit motive discrepancies or high implicit fear motives, we expect psychological conflict, impaired well-being, and the depletion of will-power. Regarding the undermining effect, we expect extrinsic rewards which thematically match the intrinsically motivated task at hand lead to enhanced instead of corrupted intrinsic motivation. Regarding visions (i.e., mental images of one's future), to be motivationally effective by arousing a person's implicit motives, detectable in characteristic physiological and implicit motivational reactions.
We conducted a series of experiments as well as field studies in the management domain to test these propositions. In sum, the results of these studies support the basic tenets of the compensatory model.
In terms of application, the model was then used as a reference point for motivation management on different levels of the organizations. We developed self-management training for the individual level; "leadership by motivation", a management training program, for the team level; and "motivation for change", a change program based on the compensatory model, for the organizational level. We report about actual initiatives in using and evaluating these programs.

Avraham N. Kluger, Hebrew University Mt. Scopus, Israel

Listening: A review, meta-analyses, and a theory

When someone else speaks, we sometimes listen attentively and sometimes not.  When we do listen attentively, sometimes we listen with the intent of supporting the speaker, named here facilitative listening.  I argue that facilitative listening creates a syndrome of togetherness, which makes people free to recognize inconsistencies in their self-knowledge, be motivated to co-create knowledge and enjoy higher well-being.  However, facilitative listening effects may attenuated by avoidant attachment style, hinting at boundary conditions of existing theories (e.g., Rogers').
To test this theory, existing theories are reviewed, meta-analyses are carried out, and primary studies are reported.  Existing theories suggest that listening shapes speaker behavior, changes speakers' self-knowledge, and even personality.  Meta analyses and a quantitative review suggest that listening (a) is a rare behavior, (b) received little academic attention, (c) could be measured reliably (d) strongly correlates with organizational outcomes such as satisfaction, well-being and perceptions of leadership, (e) shapes speaker's behavior, memory and attitudes, and relationships, and (f) is trainable. Primary studies show that listening creates psychological safety (togetherness), but mostly for non-avoidant dyads.

Ina Melny & Hugo M. Kehr, Technische Universität München, Germany

Does fear lead us into depletion of self-control?

According to the strength model of self-control, regulation of emotions and behavior requires self-control (Baumeister, 1998). Self-control is conceptualized as a limited resource. Immediately after exercising self-control, capacity is likely to be depleted and self-control failure could result. The objective of this research is to examine the depletion of self-control capacity caused by fear. If fear consumes the self-control, there will be less capacity for subsequent tasks. In four studies we induced fear and measured trait and state self-control capacity. We introduce fear using different proven methods (e.g. “speech anxiety paradigm”). We measured the available self-control capacity before and after fear induction using the dual-task paradigm (Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven, & Tice, 1998), a direct questionnaire for state self-control and an indirect measurement technique (e.g. ImplicitAssociation Test). In all studies, fear induction was successful and led to a significant decrease of the self-control resource. The present results also suggest that especially for people low in trait self-control capacity, performance in self-control tasks after experiencing fear is more difficult and depleting.

Kimberly Merriman, University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA

Incenting Managers towards the Triple Bottom Line: An Agency and Social Norm Perspective

Research to date has identified CEO pay structure as an important factor in the environmental and social performance of the organization, but has not considered how pay may influence these sustainability efforts at the middle-management level.  We address this void with an experimental manipulation of direct and indirect pay incentives for an environmental sustainability project and production cost savings project.  Counter to our predictions, investment in sustainability versus cost savings is significantly lower when incentives for both projects are equivalent, and investment is only comparable when incentives for the sustainability project are superior.  Further investigation using qualitative data attributes this to differences in the salient social norms that individuals hold and an apparent undervaluing of the indirect incentive derived through sustainability’s contribution to cost savings.  The results shed light on primary ways in which human resource management practices may be used to embed support for sustainability initiatives throughout the organization. 

Margit Osterloh , University of Zürich, Switzerland

Motivation Governance. A view from Psychological Economics

Standard economics uses a one-dimensional concept of motivation. It assumes that people are perfectly rational and are solely motivated in a selfish way. This essay argues that people differ in their preferences with respect to pro-social orientations, that preferences are plastic and systematically susceptible to the design of institutions, working conditions, and the quality of human interactions, that individuals partly lack self-control in following their preferences, and that preferences often are not known to the individuals and are wrongly interpreted. We discuss measures for motivation governance derived from the insights of psychological economics.

Maika Rawolle, Alexandra Mader, Oliver Schultheiss, Hugo M. Kehr, Technische Universität München, Germany

The motivating power of visions: Exploring the mechanisms

Visions are mental images of a desirable and attainable future. As a core component of the new leadership theories, visions are assumed to promote follower motivation. However, the motivational processes and effects triggered by visions have not yet been empirically explored. Based on prior findings that images, whether mental or real, channel access to the implicit motive system, we hypothesize that visions are motivationally effective because they arouse implicit motives. We tested this hypothesis by administering different motive-domain-specific visions (agentic vision, affiliative vision, and neutral vision) to arouse implicit motives. We then measured the degree to which motivation had been aroused through changes in motive imagery in the Picture Story Exercise as well as changes in salivary progesterone and testosterone, two hormonal indicators of affiliation and power motivation, respectively. As predicted, in the communal condition, increases in affiliative imagery were higher than in the other conditions. In the agentic condition, increases in agentic imagery were higher than in the other conditions. Furthermore, changes in affiliation imagery were associated with changes in salivary progesterone in the communal condition only. Similarly, it was only in the agentic condition that changes in power imagery were associated with changes in salivary testosterone.

Matthias Schlabitz, Technische Universität München, Germany

Organizational Visions as correlates to distal goals and mental images – a motive based approach to followers’ commitment and inspiration.

Organizational visions are a core element of modern leadership theories. Within the current research I examine the popular idea of leadership researchers, that appealing to followers’ with a well articulated vision enhance commitment and inspire followers. I argue that visions affect followers’ motivation twofold, as distal goals and as mental images. Whereas distal goals relate to the explicit motivational system, mental images relate to the implicit motivational system. I propose that followers’ vision-corresponding explicit motives may positively relate to commitment and followers’ vision-corresponding implicit motives may positively relate to inspiration. Furthermore I propose that the organizational context (organizational commitment, trust in management) as well as vision attributes (clarity, ambition) positively relate to followers commitment and inspiration. Moreover, I argue, that the effect of the implicit motive on inspiration is mediated by positive affect. The current research tests the ideas in two cross-sectional field studies (n1 = 255, n2 = 105) in a multinational company. The findings support my predictions. Implications for further research and practice are discussed.

Boas Shamir, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

The role of self-concept based motivations in leadership processes

There is evidence that people are motivated not only by goals and expectancies but also by the match between their self-concepts (current and ideal) and characteristics of the situation. Drawing on self-concept theories I will suggest that leadership is effective to the extent that it succeeds in mobilizing these self-concept based motivations and linking them to the collective mission. I will present some implications of this argument for leadership, followership, and the relationships between leaders and followers.
Self concept based motivations are also relevant to the leader's motivation and the concept of authentic leadership, which has recently gained popularity. Leaders may need to internalize a leader identity in order to be effective, and authentic leaders are, almost by definition, individuals whose goals and actions are consistent with their self-concepts. I will suggest that leaders' self-concepts are captured in their life stories and one way by which leaders develop their self-concept is through the construction of a life story on the basis of the meanings they attach to events in their lives. I will further suggest that followers assess the authenticity of their leader on the basis of matching the leader's life story with his or her goals and actions.

Daan Stam, Rotterdam School of Management, Holland

Leader communication: A self-regulatory focus perspective

Leadership is the art of motivating and influencing followers. In order to understand leadership, therefore, one needs to understand motivations of followers. The current research uses regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1987, 1996, 1997) to understand leadership with a specific emphasis on the effects of leader communication. Self-regulatory focus theory posits that two motivational strategies play a critical role in directing behavior. Promotion-focused individuals are eager to achieve, emphasize ideals, and focus on advancement, growth, and change. Prevention-focused individuals are vigilant and careful not to lose, emphasize fears and oughts, and focus on safety, consistency, and responsibility. I will present research that investigates the effects communicating promotion and/or prevention focus as a leader. This research emphasizes the effects of promotion and prevention focus for different types of outcomes, for different types of followers, and in different circumstances.

Susanne M. Steiner & Hugo M. Kehr, Technische Universität München, Germany

Rewards are not always bad for fun: Undermining the undermining effect using task-congruent rewards

If people are rewarded for tasks they enjoy, they may enjoy those tasks less: Extrinsic rewards have the potential to undermine one' s intrinsic motivation. Multiple studies have verified evidence for this undermining effect. In particular, the negative effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation appears to be incontrovertible. However, thus far, the harmful effects of different tangible rewards have not been compared. The purpose of the present research was to close this research gap, and to find out whether there are classes of tangible rewards that do not harm intrinsic motivation.
Our basic assumption was that rewards only undermine intrinsic motivation as much as they are thematically unrelated to the task. These assumptions are based on attribution theory and the compensatory model of motivation and volition. We hypothesized that only task-incongruent tangible rewards that are not thematically related to the task would undermine intrinsic motivation. By contrast, task-congruent tangible rewards should not undermine intrinsic motivation.
We conducted three studies to verify these assumptions: Whereas Studies 1 and 2 were conducted in a laboratory setting; Study 3 was conducted in an educational setting. The findings provided a high degree of support for my assumptions. Studies 1 to 3 revealed that task-congruent rewards do not undermine intrinsic motivation, whereas task-incongruent rewards do. Furthermore, Study 2 revealed that task-incongruent rewards tend to undermine intrinsic motivation regardless of whether they are monetary or nonmonetary. Beyond the positive effect of task-congruent rewards on intrinsic motivation, Study 3 also revealed a positive effect on performance.

Matthias Strasser, Benjamin Birk, Elisabeth Zureck, Hugo M. Kehr, Technische Universität München, Germany

Activity-related Flow Moderates Effects of Perfectionism on Burnout

In a field study conducted in a large IT company we assessed the combined effects of perfectionism and activity-related flow on perceptions and behaviors associated with symptoms of burnout. We assumed that high perfectionistic strivings combined with high perfectionistic concerns would lead to a higher burnout risk and that activity-related flow would buffer this effect by its ability to elicit active coping and positive emotions. 69 subjects in three departments of the company completed a survey which spanned three weeks and comprised four steps: Assessment of job satisfaction and perceived stress, measurement of activity-related flow (experience sampling method: four to six occasions, diverse work-related activities), assessment of perfectionistic traits, assessment of burnout risk (questionnaire assessing two different risk patterns, labeled risk pattern A and risk pattern B, respectively). Our results did not show the assumed three-way interaction of perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, and flow. Instead, for both burn-out risk patterns we found a significant two-way interaction of perfectionistic strivings and flow: Individuals with high perfectionistic strivings and low levels of flow were more inclined to show symptoms of risk pattern A, which was associated with negative emotions and low resilience. Activity-related flow buffered this effect. For risk pattern B, which is associated with low engagement and high levels of resignation, flow also moderated the effects of perfectionistic strivings: Individuals both high in strivings and high in flow were least inclined to show pattern B symptoms, whereas individuals high in strivings, but low in flow were most inclined to pattern B. Research methods and results will be discussed.

Julia Trapp, Technische Universität München, Germany

Gender differences in assertiveness and effects on the implicit power motivation and the interest in leadership positions

Previous studies on power motivation have shown that dominating another person in competitive situations leads to a rise of the implicit power motivation. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of a manipulation of assertiveness on the implicit power motivation and the personalized and socialized power motive as well as on the interest in a leadership position in two case studies and the subsequently preferred leadership style.
The manipulation of assertiveness was realized with two primes in which participants should either imagine asserting themselves or being assertive for another person.
In comparison to the control group, participants of the two assertiveness-conditions showed a higher implicit power motivation. Men had a higher implicit power motivation than women after asserting themselves. There was further a significant difference of the experimental conditions concerning the personalized and socialized power measure. Participants who asserted themselves had, as expected, higher values on the personalized power motive.
In one of the two case studies participants of the assertiveness-conditions and men showed a greater interest in the leadership position. None of the hypotheses regarding leadership style could be confirmed.

Elisabeth Zureck, Friederike Gerstenberg, Christine Altstötter-Gleich, Natalia Schneider, Manfred Schmitt,

Are you a stressed perfectionist? How achievement motivation influences your psychological and physiological responses

In a series of studies we investigated how perfectionism and achievement motivation are related to different stress responses. In a first study we examined whether, compared to functional perfectionists, dysfunctional perfectionists are related to more vulnerability after a stress induction (Trierer Social Stress Test, Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993). In relation to psychological responses (e.g., mood, arousal) significant moderator effects of perfectionism were found. With regard to physiological responses (cortisol) a main effect of experimental condition was obtained (higher levels of cortisol in the stress condition). In a second study we examined the influence of implicit (Heckhausen, 1966) and explicit achievement motivation (Schönbrodt & Gerstenberg, 2011) as potential mediators of the moderating effects of perfectionism. The empirical findings on psychological and physiological responses are discussed with regard to the potentially underlying mechanisms of personality and stress.